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chalo, Duncan Mutiso [1].

Evaluation of antimicrobial activity, toxicity, phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plants of Losho, Narok county, Kenya.

In Kenya, microbial infections are a major cause of morbidity. Antibiotic effectiveness is threatened by increasing resistance of pathogenic microbes against most available drugs as new pathogens continue to emerge. Currently, herbal remedies offer hope considering they are readily and cheaply available. This study focused on antimicrobial activity, brine shrimp lethality and phytochemical composition of crude extracts of Schrebera alata, Ormocarpum kirkii, Helichrysum forskahlii and Cussonia holstii that are medicinally used by herbalists from Losho for treatment of ear, nose and throat infections, gastrointestinal disorders and skin ailments. Qualitative AST against five microorganisms, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was investigated using agar diffusion methods to generate inhibition zones and MIC’s values. Toxicity of the extracts was investigated using BSL assay to determine median LC50. Phytochemical screening was determined using standard procedures. Organic crude extracts of H. forskahlii had the highest inhibition zone against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus of 19.5 and 18.5 mm in agar well and agar disk diffusion respectively. MIC’s values varied from 15.625 to 250mg/ml.Organic crude extracts of H. forskahlii and C. holstii were found to be highly toxic (LC50 0.009 mg/ml). All the plant crude extracts contained flavanoids, sterols, alkaloids, tannins, quinones and terpenoids. Saponins were present in all the plant extracts screened except organic extracts of H. forskahlii. The study has shown that H. forskahlii and O.kirkii possess promising antimicrobial activity against microbes of health importance and could lead to the isolation of novel, safe and efficacious antimicrobial compounds and further research should be carried to isolate and characterize the compounds responsible for the observed activity.


1 - University of Nairobi, Biological Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya

Keywords:
antimicrobial plants
Kenya
toxicity
Phytochemical screening.

Presentation Type: Oral Presentation
Number:
Abstract ID:79
Candidate for Awards:None